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Understanding Grain Structure and Direction when Plate Bending



Understanding Grain Structure and Direction when Plate Bending

The crystals or ‘grains’ of which iron and steel are composed are built up of exceedingly small cubes built up of atoms. The length of each side of a cube is less than a tenth of a millionth of an inch, too small to be seen under even the most powerful microscope, but what can be seen are irregularly shaped crystal or crystal-grain, and each is built up of a huge number of cubical units.


Examples of bent steel



A History of Metal bending

Before steel came into general use during the latter part of the 19th century, curved structures were frequently constructed from iron, which is cast in liquid form in a curved profile or built up from wrought iron components, either with shaped web plates or in the form of lattice trusses. Because wrought iron was very soft, blacksmiths could curve small components by hot forging.


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