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‘D,E,F’ of Metal Bending

‘D,E,F’ of Metal Bending


“D” of Bend Centreline Radius (CLR) divided by tube diameter or nominal pipe size. (I.e. 3d, 5d etc) 8” pipe to 3d = 24” (610mm) radius.

Degree of Bend (DOB) The angle to which the bend is formed.

Diameter (Dia) A straight line passing through the centre of and touching bothsides of a circle.

Distortion A change from original shape and dimension / size.

Ductility The ability of the material to deform without fracture. This is measured by elongation of the area in a tensile test.


Elastic Modulus The mathematical description of an object or substance’s tendency to be deformed elastically (i.e., non-permanently) when a force is applied to it.

Elongation The increase in length of material fibres during bending, expressed as a percentage of the original length.

Extrados The outside arc of the bend (see Backwall).


Flattening The distortion of the cross section of pipe or tube from its normal (round) shape. (See Ovality)

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